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Pharmacotherapy/Pharmaceutical Care
Original Research Article
2022
:1;
5
doi:
10.25259/AJPPS_5_2022

Bridging the gap between evidence-based practice and probiotic utilization among US adults: Results from a national survey

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Florham Park, United States
Fairleigh Dickinson University, School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Florham Park, United States
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fairleigh Dickinson University, School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Florham Park, United States
Department of Social Sciences and History, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Madison, New Jersey, United States
Corresponding author: Ayse Elif Ozdener-Poyraz, PharmD, MPH Department of Pharmacy Practice, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Florham Park, New Jersey, United States. eozdener@fdu.edu
Licence
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, transform, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

How to cite this article: Ozdener-Poyraz AE, Rivkin A, Iwuchukwu OF, Cassino D. Bridging the gap between evidence-based practice and probiotic utilization among US adults: Results from a national survey. Am J Pharmacother Pharm Sci 2022.5.

Abstract

Objectives:

Recently published guidelines recommend probiotics for only a few indications. However, probiotics are widely utilized by consumers due to accessibility, perceived safety, and belief that they promote gut health. The objective of this survey study was to examine probiotic use, evaluate public knowledge regarding the risks and benefits of probiotics, and identify variables that predict the use of probiotics among US adults.

Materials and Methods:

The survey was conducted among a random sample of 1000 adults living in the US, from January 28 through February 13, 2019. Analysis was conducted with Chi-square tests and Pearson correlation with 95% confidence intervals and a significance level of 5% for all tests. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify associations between survey respondents’ characteristics and use of probiotics.

Results:

Thirty-one percent of respondents stated they currently take or have taken probiotics daily, while 29% are considering future use. Sixty-four percent of daily probiotic users were taking probiotics without a medical provider’s recommendation. Six percent sought counseling from a pharmacist for over-the-counter products, including probiotics. A multivariate logistic regression showed that women, whites, 4-year college graduates, and younger respondents were more likely to report probiotic use. An additional logistic regression showed a significant conditional relationship between chronic illness, education, and white race (P<0.05).

Conclusion:

Guideline-recommended indications for probiotic use are limited. This study showed some respondents may be using probiotics unnecessarily. Pharmacists can educate the public about probiotic benefits and prevent unnecessary use of these products.

Keywords

Probiotics
Gastrointestinal
Survey
National
Over-the-counter

INTRODUCTION

Probiotics are live microorganisms that have health benefits to the host if consumed in adequate quantities.[1] Probiotics either occur naturally in fermented foods, added to food products, or sold as dietary supplements. The most commonly used genera of microorganisms in probiotic-containing products include Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Escherichia, and Bacillus.[2,3] Probiotic supplement manufacturers do not have to demonstrate efficacy and safety, because dietary supplements do not require Food and Drug Administration approval before marketing.[3,4] The dose and purity of the probiotic supplement may vary between brands. For this reason, not all foods and supplements labeled as “probiotics” are proven to have any health benefit to the consumer due to the lack of regulatory oversight.

The mechanism by which probiotics exert health benefits to the host differs among the various strains, species, and genera of microorganisms. Mechanisms of action may include inhibition of growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, production of bioactive metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids, reduction of luminal pH in the colon, vitamin synthesis, strengthening the gut barrier, bile salt metabolism, enzymatic activity, and toxin neutralization.[5,6] Probiotics have been studied for different indications including obesity, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and antibiotic-associated diarrhea.[2,7,8] Research on probiotics has provided frequently conflicting results making it difficult for patients and clinicians to make evidence-based decisions about probiotic use in treating and preventing GI conditions.

Trends in consumer purchasing behavior show that probiotics are among the most widely used supplements. According to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as of 2012, the use of pre- and pro-biotics quadrupled since 2007 reaching 3.9 million Americans making it the third most popular non-vitamin and non-mineral dietary supplement.[9] Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut, and will not be included in this study.[10] Despite its growing utilization by the public, guidelines published by the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) recommend probiotics in only three circumstances: (1) Prevention of Clostridium difficile infection for adults and children on antibiotic therapy, (2) improvement of symptoms in patients with pouchitis, and (3) prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants <37 weeks gestational age.[11] The objective of this study was to examine probiotic use, evaluate population knowledge regarding the risks and benefits of probiotics, examine whether pharmacist recommendations are sought before using probiotics, and to identify variables that predict the use of probiotics among US adults.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Survey design

Survey development involved collaborative efforts between investigators in Fairleigh Dickinson university, school of pharmacy, and the survey research unit in the office of Fairleigh Dickinson’s public mind poll. Survey question wording and revision, clarification, and inclusiveness of answer choices was done iteratively based on investigator feedback. The final survey was composed of demographics, questions on probiotic use, and utilization of pharmacist services. While many of the questions had primarily binary responses (Yes/No), respondents were given the opportunity to refuse to answer the question, or state that they did not know the answer, with these statements recorded as valid responses when volunteered. Participation in this survey study was voluntary. Results were deidentified and reported in aggregate to study authors.

Sampling

The survey was conducted by landline and cellular telephone among a US national sample (including Hawaii and Alaska) of 1000 adults, reached through random digit dial techniques by professional live callers. About 70% of the sample was reached on cell phones, and the remainder on landline phones. Surveys averaged 10.4 min. Screening questions were used at the start of the survey to ensure that all respondents were at least 18 years of age. Rake weighting techniques were then used to match demographic characteristics of the sample to known population characteristics based on 2019 Claritas data on age, race/ethnicity, and sex.

Data collection

The survey was conducted from January 28 to February 13, 2019. Interviews were conducted using live interviewers aided by computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) software, which ensured all questions were asked correctly and all logic and skip patterns were implemented properly. Respondents’ answers to questions determined which questions were asked, as reflected in the base column in [Table 1]. The CATI system allowed for a maximum of six attempts to be made on each number. To maximize response rates, numbers were called at various times of the day and days in the week and respondents could request a callback at a more convenient time and date as needed. These appointments were called at the appointed time or rescheduled if the respondent was not available at the initially requested time. Interviews were conducted by professionally trained interviewers at an outside Market Research and Analysis Company (Reconnaissance Market Research, ReconMR, 135 S. Guadalupe Street, San Marcos, TX). This study was reviewed by the Institutional Review Board at Fairleigh Dickinson university and was determined to be exempt from human subject review.

Table 1:: Survey responses on probiotic utility.
Base Yes (%) No (%) Don’t know (%) Refused (%)
Probiotic use
1. Are you now, or have you ever taken probiotics, either in food or pill form, on a daily basis? 1000 310 (31) 658 (66) 30 (3) 2 (0.2)
2. Would you consider taking probiotics on a daily basis? 690 203 (29) 417 (60) 68 (10) 2 (0.3)
3. Did a doctor recommend that you personally take probiotics on a daily basis? 310 110 (35) 198 (64) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3)
4. To the best of your knowledge, does daily probiotic use only enhance health, OR can probiotics also HURT someone’s overall health? 1000 Yes, enhances health: 412 (41) No, hurts health: 249 (25) 331 (33) 9 (1)

Data analysis

Analysis was conducted with Chi-square tests and Pearson correlation with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and a significance level of 5% for all tests. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between survey respondents’ characteristics and taking probiotics. Analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics (version 25), IBM corporation and Stata 16 (Statacorp, 2020). Multivariate logistic regression was used to isolate the contributions of various demographic factors in predicting probiotic use (coded as a dichotomous variable, with 0 for non-reported use and 1 for reported use of probiotics). Predictors in the model included standard demographic controls: Sex, education level, age, race/ethnicity (coded as a dummy variable: 1 for white non-Hispanic respondents, 0 otherwise), whether the respondent reported a chronic health condition, and whether the respondent reported speaking with a pharmacist recently.

RESULTS

In the weighted sample, 51% of respondents were female, 38% were between the ages of 35–59, and 57% of respondents self-identified as non-Hispanic white [Table 2]. Approximately one-third (31%) of survey respondents stated that they currently take or have taken probiotics daily. An additional 29% of respondents said that they would consider future probiotics use [Table 1]. Probiotic formulations selected among survey respondents who either took probiotics in the past, were taking them currently, or considered taking them in the future, included pill (36%), yogurt (43%), or other food or drink (18%) [Figure 1]. Most probiotic users (64%) were using daily probiotics without seeking a medical provider’s recommendation [Table 1]. Good intestinal health (55%), counteracting the negative effects of antibiotics (11%), and weight loss/management (12%) were the most common reasons why respondents took probiotics [Figure 1]. Only 26% of respondents taking probiotics now or in the past reported having a chronic illness [Table 3]. Study respondents were also asked whether they believed daily probiotic use only enhanced health or could also hurt health. The majority (41%) stated that probiotics only enhanced health, while 25% said that they can also hurt health [Table 1]. When the respondents were asked whether they spoke with a pharmacist when visiting a pharmacy, 28% said always, 27% said sometimes, 29% said rarely, and 15% answered never. Only 6% sought pharmacists’ counseling for over-the-counter therapies, including probiotics [Table 1 (suppl)]. There was a weak positive correlation between probiotic use, female sex, age, chronic illness, and white race (P < 0.05) [Table 2 (suppl)]. The full survey questions and answers are shown in [Table 1] in the supplemental material. Predicted probabilities based on the results showed that, controlling for other factors, women were 18% points more likely to report using probiotics than men, and older respondents were less likely to report probiotic use than younger respondents, with the likelihood decreasing by approximately 2.2% points for every 10-year increase in age. White respondents were also about 8 points more likely to report probiotic use than non-white respondents, and individuals with a 4-year college degree were about 6 points more likely to do so than those who did not complete a degree. Further logistical regression analysis was conducted to explore the interaction between race/ethnicity, education level, and having a chronic illness [Table 4]. This analysis included an interaction effect between these three variables (as well as all necessary lower order interactions). The results of this analysis show a significant conditional relationship between chronic illness, education, and white race/ethnicity (z = 1.96 on the three-way interaction, P < 0.05). The largest effects of chronic illness were among more educated non-white respondents. In this group, individuals with a chronic illness were 11% points more likely to report probiotic use than individuals without a chronic illness. This effect did not increase reported probiotic use among more educated white respondents.

Figure 1:: Survey responses on probiotic utility.
Table 2:: Weighted sample characteristics*.
Characteristics n=1000 (%)
Sex
Male 487 (48.7)
Female 513 (51.3)
Age
18–34 277 (27.7)
35–59 378 (37.8)
60+ 277 (27.7)
Refused 69 (6.9)
Race
White 569 (56.9)
Black 105 (10.5)
Hispanic 184 (18.4)
Other 141 (14.1)
Chronic illness
Yes 235 (23.5)
No 742 (74.2)
Samples may not add up to 1000 because respondents could refuse a question. Percentages may not add up to 100% because of rounding
Table 3:: Results from probiotic use question (Are you now or have you ever taken probiotics, either in food or pill form on a daily basis?).
Gender Yes (310) No (658) Don’t Know (30) Refused (2) Total (n=1000)
Male 113 (33%) 361 (55%) 11 (37%) 2 (100%) 487 (49%)
Female 197 (64%) 297 (45%) 19 (63%) 0 (0%) 513 (51%)
Total 310 (100%) 658 (100%) 30 (100%) 2 (100%) 1000 (100%)
Race Yes (310) No (658) Don’t know (30) Refused (2) Total (n=1000)
White 195 (63%) 359 (55%) 16 (53%) 0 (0%) 570 (57%)
Non-white 115 (37%) 299 (45%) 14 (47%) 2 (100%) 430 (43%)
Total 310 (100%) 658 (100%) 30 (100%) 2 (100%) 1000 (100%)
Age Yes (287) No (616) Don’t know (26) Refused (0) Total (n=929)
18–34 83 (29%) 185 (30%) 8 (30%) --- 276 (30%)
35–59 124 (43%) 244 (40%) 9 (35%) --- 377 (40%)
60+ 80 (28%) 187 (30%) 9 (35%) --- 276 (30%)
Total 287 (100%) 616 (100%) 26 (100%) --- 929 (100%)
Have chronic illness Yes (301) No (649) Don’t know (26) Refused (0) Total (n=976)
Yes 79 (26%) 146 (29%) 9 (35%) --- 234 (24%)
No 222 (74%) 503 (71%) 17 (65%) --- 742 (76%)
Total 301 (100%) 649 (100%) 26 (100%) 976 (100%)
Have health insurance Yes (247) No (537) Don’t Know (19) Refused (0) Total (n=803)
Yes 247 (100%) 535 (100%) 19 (100%) --- 801 (100%)
No 0 2 0 --- 2
Total 247 (100%) 535 (100%) 19 (100%) --- 803 (100%)
Been to pharmacy in the last few months Yes (309) No (657) Don’t Know (31) Refused (0) Total (n=997)
Yes 247 (80%) 470 (71%) 20 (65%) --- 737 (74%)
No 62 (20%) 187 (29%) 11 (35%) --- 260 (26%)
Total 309 (100%) 657 (100%) 31 (100%) 997 (100%)
Table 4:: Logistic regression for reported use of probiotics.
Predictors N = 867, Pseudo R2 = .04 N = 867, Pseudo R2 = .05
Coef Std Error Z Coef Std Error Z
Sex 0.863 0.153 5.63 0.857 0.154 5.57
Chronic Illness 0.110 0.172 0.64 -2.249 1.384 -1.62
Education 0.156 0.068 2.29 0.116 0.170 0.68
Pharmacist 0.303 0.197 1.54 0.290 0.198 1.47
Age -0.010 0.004 -2.35 -0.010 0.004 -2.23
White 0.421 0.186 2.26 0.381 0.696 0.55
Interaction Effects
White x Education 0.023 0.194 0.12
White x Chronic 2.604 1.502 1.73
Chronic x Education 0.695 0.361 1.92
White x Chronic x Education* -0.778 0.397 -1.96
Constant -2.654 0.408 -6.51 -2.549 0.661 -3.86
Significant data reported in the results section

DISCUSSION

This study found that sex, age, race, and education level were significantly associated with probiotics use. The association between female sex and probiotic use may be explained by increased prevalence of GI disorders, such as IBS and inflammatory bowel disease, in females.[12] In one study, as many as, 24.3% of females diagnosed with IBS currently use or have used probiotics to manage their symptoms.[13] In addition, the previous studies showed that in general, women are more likely to use alternative medicines than men, consistent with our findings.[14,15] In our study, there was a significant decrease in probiotic use with each decade of life. This could be due to marketing targeted to a younger demographic, less knowledge or familiarity with benefits of probiotics in older respondents, or lower acceptance/higher level of mistrust toward probiotics. One study found that older patients were significantly less likely to have heard the word “probiotics” that younger patients.[16] Correlation of white race and 4-year college degree education level to probiotic use may be explained by this population having higher median disposable income.[17] There was a weak correlation between probiotic use and having a chronic illness. Survey respondents were not asked which chronic illness, they were diagnosed with limiting the interpretation of this correlation. Respondents with chronic illnesses may be looking for alternative medicines to alleviate their symptoms.[13] Interaction effects from the logistic regression analyses show the absence of effects in certain respondents, especially in those self-identifying as white and highly educated. While useful, these effects do not answer the question of why suffering from chronic illness does not have a main effect on increasing the likelihood of probiotic use. These interaction effects support a social capital explanation in which certain demographic groups may be more aware of the potential efficacy of probiotics than others. More educated people and whites may be more likely to take probiotics regardless of chronic conditions while others become more informed of the benefits when they have a chronic illness. As such, we did not observe an interaction of indicators of higher social capital with chronic illness, indicating that chronic illness did not make them more likely to take probiotics than they already were. This led to conducting an additional logistical regression to test for interaction effects between race, education, and chronic illness. We found a significant conditional relationship between chronic illness, education, and race in the additional regressions. Among white respondents with the lower levels of education, chronic illness increased the likelihood of reported use of probiotics. The interaction between chronic illness and probiotic use was greatest in more educated, non-white respondents. In general, we observed that chronic illness makes individuals more likely to use probiotics, but only among those not otherwise using them, since majority of patients reported using probiotics for preventive purposes and not for chronic illness. In general, chronic illness makes people who were less likely to take probiotics about as likely as educated white people who do not have chronic illness. This indicates that chronic illness has only a contingent effect on the reported use of probiotics, rather than increasing the likelihood across the board. Our results are similar to some previously reported surveys. A study conducted by Chin-Lee and colleagues (2014) reported similar rates of probiotics use in the US (29.9%); however, they did not find a statistically significant relationship between use of probiotics and other variables such as age, sex, ethnicity, education, or income level.[18] This could be because their sample size was 162 compared to this study which had 1000 survey respondents. Our study demonstrated lower prevalence of probiotics use when compared to a survey study conducted by Draper et al., which showed that 55% of respondents used probiotics in the 3 months before completing the survey.[19] In a survey conducted in 2013 by the International Food Information Council Foundation, the top three reasons associated with probiotic use by Americans were maintenance of digestive system health, maintenance of immune system health, and help with weight management which is similar to our findings (International Food Information Council Foundation 2013).[20] In recently released AGA guidelines, probiotics use is recommended for only three GI conditions: Prevention of C. difficile infection for adults and children on antibiotic therapy, improvement of symptoms in patients with pouchitis, and prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in pre-term infants <37 weeks gestational age. The recommendations are conditional with differing quality of evidence for each of the three indications. For each of the three conditions, specific probiotic strain or combination of strains is recommended based on extensive review and grading of available evidence.[11] Moreover, in contrast to the previous 2018 American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) recommendations, which suggested use of probiotics to improve global symptoms of bloating and flatulence in patients with IBS, a recent 2020 ACG update on the management of IBS does not support use of probiotics (conditional recommendation and very low quality of evidence).[21,22] While there is an abundance of clinical studies and reports on using probiotics for various GI diseases (technical review identified close to 9000), their quality and generalizability were poor in many cases, leading to these limited recommendations.[23] It is also important to mention that general GI health is not one of the recommended uses; however, majority of respondents in our study utilized probiotics for this non-clinical indication. Respondents reported using a variety of probiotics formulations: Pill (36%), yogurt (43%), or other food/drink (18%). This was an interesting finding since most fermented yogurts contain live probiotic cultures but not at a sufficient level of colony-forming units of bacteria and yeast to be considered a “probiotic,” where there is an implication that the product can alter a disease course. Some yogurts are fortified with adequate cultures to be classified as probiotics, and their benefits have been studied in clinical trials in humans.[24-27] There is ongoing controversy surrounding probiotic-fortified foods making unsubstantiated claims regarding efficacy.[28,29] While the cost of probiotic-fortified yogurt appears to be lower than the tablet or capsule, when taking dosing regimen into consideration, cost per day is similar and may even be higher with yogurt.[30] Among all respondents, 25% indicated that probiotics can hurt their health, with 33% unsure. Lack of concern for safety is one of the reasons probiotics gained such prominence in consumers’ self-prescribed wellness regimens. Due to lack of regulatory status as drugs, probiotic safety has not been studied systematically. One major report prepared by the US agency for health-care research and quality in 2011 identified 11,977 publications and further examined 622 studies that reported any adverse effects tracking. This large-scale evidence-based analysis reported no relative risk increase in the overall incidence of adverse events due to short-term probiotic use (RR 1.00; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.07, P = 0.999). Probiotics also did not increase the risk of GI infections or other adverse reactions, including serious reactions (RR 1.06; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.16; P = 0.201). However, the authors caution that despite abundance of studies on probiotic efficacy, systematic evaluation and reporting of safety and adverse events are subpar to make definitive conclusions on probiotic safety in all patient populations.[31] Therefore, while majority of available evidence suggests that probiotics are safe, in certain patient populations, such as immunocompromised patients or critically ill patients, risks of bacterial or fungal bloodstream infection or GI ischemia need to be considered.[32] Our study also found very low utilization of pharmacists for over the counter (OTC) product counseling. A survey conducted by the national council on patient information and education and pfizer showed that 38% of patients were unsure how to select the correct OTC products, with 56% turning to primary care or other providers, as well as pharmacists, for advice on OTC product selection.[33] Our results show that pharmacists may represent a small proportion of health-care providers giving this advice, despite their knowledge, accessibility, and proximity to products and consumers making OTC or probiotic selection. Underutilization of pharmacists for this task represents an important opportunity for building trusting pharmacist-patient relationships and avoiding unnecessary costs to an individual.

There were several limitations to this study. The survey relied on respondents’ self-report, which makes the questions vulnerable to variable interpretation by the survey respondents. Like all surveys, there is the possibility of nonresponse bias. Our sample, while representative of all the dimensions we set out to measure, may differ from the general population. All respondents who said that they did/do take probiotics daily also reported having health insurance [Table 3]. In 2020, 28 million (8.6%) of Americans did not have health insurance; therefore, these results may not be generalizable.[34] In addition, there were 100 respondents who selected “other reasons” to the question about the reason for probiotic use and there was no follow-up question to elaborate on this response. Their reason for use is unknown and could not be analyzed. The survey also did not ask respondents about the type of chronic illness, they had which is a limitation. In addition, it is unknown whether respondents who answered “yes” to consuming yogurt bought regular yogurt or probiotic-fortified yogurt. Furthermore, this survey was conducted in 2019 and respondent behavior may have changed since then. The results of this study do not reflect potential changes in consumer behavior that were brought on by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

CONCLUSION

Probiotics are marketed as beneficial for gut health; however, evidence-based indications for their use are limited. This study shows that some US adults are using probiotics for reasons where their benefit is unconfirmed. Pharmacists can play an important role in educating patients about probiotic benefits and curtail potentially unnecessary use of these products.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Krista Jenkins for her contributions early in the research study.

Declaration of patient consent

Patient’s consent not required as there are no patients in this study.

Financial support and sponsorship

None.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

SUPPLEMENTARY TABLES

Table 1 [suppl]: Survey questions.

1. Are you now, or have you ever taken probiotics, either in food or pill form, on a daily basis?
Total Gender Age Race1 Race2 Marital status
Male Female 18–34 35–59 60+ White Non white White Black Hisp Other Married Divorced widow Never been married
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L) (M) (N) (O)
Base 1000 487 513 277 378 277 569 431 569 105 184* 141 486 123 75* 303
Yes 310 113 197 83 124 80 195 115 195 30 52 33 147 38 21 98
31% 23% 38%A 30% 33% 29% 34%G 27% 34%K 28% 28% 23% 30% 31% 28% 32%
No 658 361 297 185 244 187 359 299 359 72 132 95 327 79 49 199
66% 74% 58% 67% 65% 68% 63% 70% 63% 68% 72% 68% 67% 64% 66% 66%
DK 30 11 19 8 9 9 16 14 16 3 0 11 13 6 5 6
3% 2% 4% 3% 2% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 0 8%HJ 3% 5% 6%O 2%
Refused 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
* * 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 0 0 1%H 0 0 0 0
<<Sigma>> 1000 487 513 277 378 277 569 431 569 105 184 141 486 123 75 303
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Proportions/Means: Columns Tested (5% risk level) -A/B -C/D/E -F/G -H/I/J/K -L/M/N/O. *Small base

1. Are you now, or have you ever taken probiotics, either in food or pill form, on a daily basis?
Total Education Employment Chronic illness or disease Health insurance Been to pharmacy
Some HS/High school/Some college Grad from 4 year/Grad school FT or PT Retired Working outside home Yes No No health ins. Self or spouse employer Direct from plan Public health ins. Yes No
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L) (M)
Base 1000 532 459 630 235 121* 235 742 2** 436 124* 240 738 260
Yes 310 152 155 203 69 33 79 222 0 146 36 65 247 62
31% 29% 34% 32% 30% 27% 34% 30% 0 33% 29% 27% 33% 24%
No 658 361 292 415 155 83 146 503 2 284 88 163 470 187
66% 68% 64% 66% 66% 68% 62% 68% 100% 65% 70% 68% 64% 72%
DK 30 18 12 12 10 5 9 17 0 7 1 11 20 11
3% 3% 3% 2% 4%C 4% 4% 2% 0 2% 1% 5%I 3% 4%
Refused 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
* 0 * * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0
<<Sigma>> 1000 532 459 630 235 121 235 742 2 436 124 240 738 260
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Proportions/Means: Columns Tested (5% risk level) -A/B -C/D/E -F/G -H/I/J/K -L/M. *Small base, **Very small base (under 10) ineligible for sig testing

2. Would you consider taking probiotics on a daily basis?
Total Gender Age Race1 Race2 Marital status
Male Female 18–34 35–59 60+ White Non white White Black Hisp Other Married Divorced Widow Never been married
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L) (M) (N) (O)
Base 690 374 316 193* 253 197 374 316 374 75* 132* 108* 340 85* 54* 205
Yes 203 99 103 69 86 36 109 94 109 22 52 20 95 19 11 77
29% 27% 33% 36%E 34%E 18% 29% 30% 29%K 29% 39%K 18% 28% 22% 20% 38%MN
No 417 234 184 116 137 135 225 192 225 44 73 75 212 55 34 111
60% 62% 58% 60% 54% 69%D 60% 61% 60% 59% 55% 69% 62% 65% 64% 54%
DK 68 39 29 8 30 26 40 28 40 9 8 12 32 11 9 16
10% 10% 9% 4% 12%C 13%C 11% 9% 11% 12% 6% 11% 10% 13% 16% 8%
Refused 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
* 1% 0 0 0 0 0 1% 0 0 0 2%H 0 0 0 0
<<Sigma>> 690 374 316 193 253 197 374 316 374 75 132 108 340 85 54 205
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Proportions/Means: Columns Tested (5% risk level) -A/B -C/D/E -F/G -H/I/J/K -L/M/N/O. *Small base

2. Would you consider taking probiotics on a daily basis?
Total Education Employment Chronic illness or disease Health insurance Been to pharmacy
Some HS/ High school/ Some college Grad from 4 year/Grad school FT or PT Retired Working outside home Yes No No health ins. Self or spouse employer Direct from plan Public health ins. Yes No
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L) (M)
Base 690 380 305 428 165 88* 156 520 2** 290 88* 174 491 198
Yes 203 121 82 142 36 24 46 155 0 95 26 43 144 58
29% 32% 27% 33%D 22% 28% 30% 30% 0 33% 30% 25% 29% 29%
No 417 222 191 249 109 55 93 316 2 176 54 109 298 119
60% 59% 63% 58% 66% 62% 60% 61% 100% 61% 61% 63% 61% 60%
DK 68 36 31 36 21 9 17 49 0 19 8 22 47 21
10% 10% 10% 8% 13% 10% 11% 9% 0 7% 9% 13% 10% 11%
Refused 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
* 0 * * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0
<<Sigma>> 690 380 305 428 165 88 156 520 2 290 88 174 491 198
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Proportions/Means: Columns Tested (5% risk level) -A/B -C/D/E -F/G -H/I/J/K -L/M. *Small base, **Very small base (under 10) ineligible for sig testing

3. Which of the following sources of probiotics are you using [have used] [would use] on a daily basis?
Total Gender Age Race1 Race2 Marital status
Male Female 18–34 35–59 60+ White Non white White Black Hisp Other Married Divorced Widow Never been married
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L) (M) (N) (O)
Base 513 213 300 153* 211 116 304 209* 304 52* 104* 53* 242 57* 32* 176*
Pill 185 75 110 45 77 53 119 66 119 23 23 20 93 27 16 46
36% 35% 37% 30% 36% 46%C 39% 32% 39% 45%J 22% 38% 38%O 47%O 49%O 26%
Yogurt 222 89 133 62 100 44 121 101 121 23 58 20 104 22 10 84
43% 42% 44% 41% 47% 38% 40% 48% 40% 44% 56% 38% 43% 38% 32% 48%
Other food or drink 91 42 49 43 29 15 56 36 56 5 23 7 36 7 4 44
18% 20% 16% 28%DE 14% 13% 18% 17% 18% 10% 22% 13% 15% 13% 12% 25%
DK 11 6 5 2 3 4 7 4 7 1 0 4 5 2 1 2
2% 3% 2% 1% 2% 3% 2% 2% 2% 1% 0 7% 2% 3% 4% 1%
Refused 4 1 3 0 2 1 2 2 2 0 0 2 3 0 1 0
1% * 1% 0 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0 0 4%H 1% 0 3%O 0
<<Sigma>> 513 213 300 153 211 116 304 209 304 52 104 53 242 57 32 176
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Proportions/Means: Columns Tested (5% risk level) -A/B -C/D/E -F/G -H/I/J/K -L/M/N/O. *Small base

3. Which of the following sources of probiotics are you using [have used] [would use] on a daily basis?
Total Education Employment Chronic illness or disease Health insurance Been to pharmacy
Some HS/High School/Some college Grad from 4 year/Grad school FT or PT Retired Working outside home Yes No No health ins. Self or spouse employer Direct from plan Public health ins. Yes No
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L) (M)
Base 513 273 236 344 105 57* 125* 378 0** 241 62* 108* 391 120*
Pill 185 101 83 115 48 22 59 124 0 91 21 46 155 30
36% 37% 35% 33% 45%C 39% 47%G 33% 0 38% 34% 42% 40%M 25%
Yogurt 222 116 104 149 42 26 55 162 0 104 30 41 165 57
43% 42% 44% 43% 40% 45% 44% 43% 0 43% 48% 38% 42% 48%
Other food or drink 91 50 41 74 9 8 9 81 0 40 9 17 62 30
18% 18% 17% 21%D 9% 14% 7% 22%F 0 17% 14% 16% 16% 25%
DK 11 6 5 4 5 1 3 8 0 5 1 3 8 3
2% 2% 2% 1% 5%C 2% 2% 2% 0 2% 2% 2% 2% 2%
Refused 4 0 4 2 2 0 0 3 0 0 1 2 3 0
1% 0 2% 1% 2% 0 0 1% 0 0 1% 2% 1% 0
<<Sigma>> 513 273 236 344 105 57 125 378 0 241 62 108 391 120
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 0 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Proportions/Means: Columns Tested (5% risk level) -A/B -C/D/E -F/G -H/I/J/K -L/M. *Small base, **Very small base (under 10) ineligible for sig testing

4. Did a doctor recommend that you personally take probiotics on a daily basis?
Total Gender Age Race1 Race2 Marital status
Male Female 18–34 35–59 60+ White Non white White Black Hisp Other Married Divorced Widow Never married
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L) (M) (N) (O)
Base 310 113* 197 83* 124* 80 195 115* 195 30* 52* 33* 147 38* 21* 98*
Yes 110 35 74 27 43 30 72 38 72 13 12 12 43 17 11 39
35% 31% 38% 33% 34% 37% 37% 33% 37% 44% 23% 37% 29% 45% 50%L 39%
No 198 77 121 56 81 49 121 77 121 17 40 21 103 21 11 59
64% 68% 61% 67% 65% 61% 62% 67% 62% 56% 77% 63% 70%N 55% 50% 60%
DK 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
* 1% * 0 1% 1% 1% 0 1% 0 0 0 * 0 0 1%
Refused 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
* 0 * 0 0 1% * 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
<<Sigma>> 310 113 197 83 124 80 195 115 195 30 52 33 147 38 21 98
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Proportions/Means: Columns Tested (5% risk level) -A/B -C/D/E -F/G -H/I/J/K -L/M/N/O. *Small base

4. Did a doctor recommend that you personally take probiotics on a daily basis?
Total Education Employment Chronic illness or disease Health insurance Been to pharmacy
Some HS/ High school/ Some college Grad from 4 year/Grad school FT or PT Retired Working outside home Yes No No health ins. Self or spouse employer Direct from plan Public health ins. Yes No
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L) (M)
Base 310 152 155 203 69* 33* 79* 222 0** 146* 36* 65* 247 62*
Yes 110 54 56 64 36 9 39 68 0 54 9 25 98 12
35% 35% 36% 32% 53%CE 28% 49%G 31% 0 37% 25% 38% 40%M 19%
No 198 97 98 138 32 24 39 153 0 92 26 39 146 50
64% 64% 64% 68%D 46% 72%D 50% 69%F 0 63% 73% 60% 59% 81%L
DK 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0
* 1% 0 * 1% 0 1% * 0 0 2% 1% 1% 0
Refused 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
* 0 0 0 1% 0 1% 0 0 0 0 1% * 0
<<Sigma>> 310 152 155 203 69 33 79 222 0 146 36 65 247 62
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 0 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Proportions/Means: Columns Tested (5% risk level) -A/B -C/D/E -F/G -H/I/J/K -L/M. *Small base, **Very small base (under 10) ineligible for sig testing

5. Which of the following health concerns best describes why you are taking [have taken] [are considering] taking probiotics on a daily basis?
Total Gender Age Race1 Race2 Marital status
Male Female 18–34 35–59 60+ White Non white White Black Hisp Other Married Divorced Widow Never been married
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L) (M) (N) (O)
Base 513 213 300 153* 211 116 304 209* 304 52* 104* 53* 242 57* 32* 176*
Good intestinal health 282 97 185 90 113 61 174 108 174 29 56 23 135 31 16 97
55% 46% 62%A 59% 53% 53% 57% 52% 57% 55% 54% 44% 56% 55% 51% 55%
Counteract the negative effects of antibiotic use 55 20 35 12 22 19 42 13 42 5 0 8 28 9 4 15
11% 9% 12% 8% 10% 16% 14%G 6% 14%J 9%J 0 15%J 12% 15% 11% 8%
Weight loss or management 59 28 32 21 26 9 23 37 23 6 25 6 30 10 2 17
12% 13% 11% 14% 12% 8% 7% 18%F 7% 11% 24%H 11% 13% 18% 6% 10%
Other reason 100 57 44 24 48 20 56 44 56 12 23 10 41 7 7 45
20% 27%B 15% 16% 23% 17% 18% 21% 18% 23% 22% 19% 17% 12% 23% 25%
DK 10 6 4 2 1 7 8 2 8 1 0 1 5 0 3 2
2% 3% 1% 2% 1% 6%D 3% 1% 3% 2% 0 2% 2% 0 9%LMO 1%
Refused 6 5 1 3 1 1 2 4 2 0 0 4 3 0 0 2
1% 2% * 2% * * 1% 2% 1% 0 0 8%HJ 1% 0 0 1%
<<Sigma>> 513 213 300 153 211 116 304 209 304 52 104 53 242 57 32 176
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Proportions/Means: Columns Tested (5% risk level) -A/B -C/D/E -F/G -H/I/J/K -L/M/N/O. *Small base

5. Which of the following health concerns best describes why you are taking [have taken] [are considering] taking probiotics on a daily basis?
Total Education Employment Chronic illness Health insurance Been to pharmacy
Some HS/ High School/ Some college Grad from 4 year/Grad school FT or PT Retired Working outside home Yes No No health ins. Self or spouse employer Direct from plan Public health ins. Yes No
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L) (M)
Base 513 273 236 344 105 57* 125* 378 0** 241 62* 108* 391 120*
Good intestinal health 282 138 144 197 55 26 69 209 0 130 41 57 210 72
55% 50% 61% 57% 53% 45% 55% 55% 0 54% 66% 53% 54% 60%
Counteract the negative effects of antibiotic use 55 29 25 31 14 10 13 41 0 28 7 12 49 5
11% 11% 10% 9% 14% 17% 10% 11% 0 11% 11% 11% 13% 4%
Weight loss or management 59 40 18 38 6 15 17 42 0 35 4 17 45 15
12% 15%B 8% 11% 6% 26% CD 14% 11% 0 14% 6% 15% 11% 12%
Other reason 100 54 45 70 23 7 23 76 0 43 8 18 76 25
20% 20% 19% 20% 22% 12% 18% 20% 0 18% 13% 17% 19% 21%
DK 10 9 1 3 6 0 4 5 0 4 1 3 8 2
2% 3% 1% 1% 5%C 0 3% 1% 0 1% 2% 3% 2% 1%
Refused 6 3 3 6 1 0 0 5 0 2 1 1 4 2
1% 1% 1% 2% 1% 0 0 1% 0 1% 1% 1% 1% 1%
<<Sigma>> 513 273 236 344 105 57 125 378 0 241 62 108 391 120
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 0 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Proportions/Means: Columns Tested (5% risk level) -A/B -C/D/E -F/G -H/I/J/K -L/M. *Small base, **Very small base (under 10) ineligible for sig testing

6. To the best of your knowledge, does daily probiotic use only enhance health, OR can probiotics also HURT someone’s overall health?
Total Gender Age Race1 Race2 Marital status
Male Female 18–34 35–59 60+ White Non white White Black Hisp Other Married Divorced Widow Never been married
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L) (M) (N) (O)
Base 1000 487 513 277 378 277 569 431 569 105 184* 141 486 123 75* 303
Enhances health 412 185 227 129 171 92 245 167 245 38 81 47 212 49 20 127
41% 38% 44% 47%E 45%E 33% 43% 39% 43% 36% 44% 34% 44%N 40% 27% 42%N
Can hurt health 249 124 125 92 92 57 132 116 132 28 58 29 114 25 13 94
25% 25% 24% 33%E 24% 21% 23% 27% 23% 27% 32% 21% 23% 20% 18% 31%N
DK 331 173 158 53 113 124 186 145 186 38 45 62 156 48 40 82
33% 35% 31% 19% 30%C 45%CD 33% 34% 33% 36% 24% 44%HJ 32% 39%O 54%LMO 27%
Refused 9 6 3 2 1 3 6 3 6 1 0 2 4 2 1 1
1% 1% 1% 1% * 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0 1% 1% 1% 2% *
<<Sigma>> 1000 487 513 277 378 277 569 431 569 105 184 141 486 123 75 303
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Proportions/Means: Columns Tested (5% risk level) -A/B -C/D/E -F/G -H/I/J/K -L/M/N/O. *Small base

6. To the best of your knowledge, does daily probiotic use only enhance health, OR can probiotics also HURT someone’s overall health?
Total Education Employment Chronic illness or disease Health insurance Been to pharmacy
Some HS/High school/Some college Grad from 4 year/Grad school FT or PT Retired Working outside home Yes No No health ins. Self or spouse employer Direct from plan Public health ins. Yes No
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L) (M)
Base 1000 532 459 630 235 121* 235 742 2** 436 124* 240 738 260
Enhances health 412 214 194 280 72 54 97 309 1 193 61 78 308 103
41% 40% 42% 44%D 31% 45%D 41% 42% 71% 44%K 49%K 32% 42% 40%
Can hurt health 249 126 121 166 47 33 54 192 0 119 24 60 178 70
25% 24% 26% 26% 20% 27% 23% 26% 0 27% 19% 25% 24% 27%
DK 331 188 139 178 113 33 84 235 * 121 40 100 245 85
33% 35% 30% 28% 48%CE 27% 36% 32% 29% 28% 32% 42%I 33% 33%
Refused 9 3 5 6 2 1 1 6 0 4 1 1 6 2
1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% * 1% 0 1% 1% 1% 1% 1%
<<Sigma>> 1000 532 459 630 235 121 235 742 2 436 124 240 738 260
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Proportions/Means: Columns Tested (5% risk level) -A/B -C/D/E -F/G -H/I/J/K -L/M. *Small base, **Very small base (under 10) ineligible for sig testing

7. When you visit a pharmacy, how often do you speak with or interact with the pharmacist on duty?
Total Gender Age Race1 Race2 Marital status
Male Female 18–34 35–59 60+ White Non white White Black Hisp Other Married Divorced Widow Never been married
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L) (M) (N) (O)
Base 1000 487 513 277 378 277 569 431 569 105 184* 141 486 123 75* 303
Always 279 147 132 94 96 69 151 128 151 45 40 43 133 34 21 89
28% 30% 26% 34%E 25% 25% 27% 30% 27% 43%HJ 22% 30% 27% 28% 28% 29%
Sometimes 268 111 157 57 112 81 151 117 151 27 56 34 134 28 24 80
27% 23% 31%A 21% 30% 29%C 27% 27% 27% 25% 31% 24% 28% 23% 32% 27%
Rarely 286 139 147 67 115 82 187 99 187 15 49 36 146 37 22 76
29% 29% 29% 24% 30% 30% 33%G 23% 33%I 14% 26% 25% 30% 30% 29% 25%
Never 155 86 69 57 50 40 76 79 76 15 40 24 66 22 9 56
15% 18% 13% 20% 13% 15% 13% 18% 13% 14% 21% 17% 14% 18% 11% 19%
DK 10 3 7 1 5 4 4 6 4 3 0 3 6 2 0 2
1% 1% 1% * 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 3% 0 2% 1% 2% 0 1%
Refused 3 1 2 0 0 1 1 2 1 0 0 2 2 0 0 0
* * * 0 0 * * * * 0 0 1%H * 0 0 0
<<Sigma>> 1000 487 513 277 378 277 569 431 569 105 184 141 486 123 75 303
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Proportions/Means: Columns Tested (5% risk level) -A/B -C/D/E -F/G -H/I/J/K -L/M/N/O. *Small base

7. When you visit a pharmacy, how often do you speak with or interact with the pharmacist on duty?
Total Education Employment Chronic illness or disease Health insurance Been to pharmacy
Some HS/ High school/ Some college Grad from 4 year/Grad school FT or PT Retired Working outside home Yes No No health ins. Self or spouse employer Direct from plan Public health ins. Yes No
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L) (M)
Base 1000 532 459 630 235 121* 235 742 2** 436 124* 240 738 260
Always 279 162 115 174 63 38 63 211 0 112 41 62 204 75
28% 30% 25% 28% 27% 32% 27% 28% 0 26% 33% 26% 28% 29%
Sometimes 268 142 125 162 68 36 69 195 0 119 29 81 222 45
27% 27% 27% 26% 29% 30% 30% 26% 0 27% 24% 34% 30%M 17%
Rarely 286 130 153 182 67 34 75 205 1 138 31 71 229 57
29% 25% 33%A 29% 28% 28% 32% 28% 71% 32% 25% 30% 31%M 22%
Never 155 88 64 104 35 12 26 122 * 65 22 22 77 78
15% 17% 14% 16% 15% 10% 11% 16% 29% 15% 18%K 9% 10% 30%L
DK 10 9 1 8 2 1 2 8 0 2 1 2 5 5
1% 2%B * 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0 * 1% 1% 1% 2%
Refused 3 0 2 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1
* 0 * * * 0 0 * 0 0 0 * *
<<Sigma>> 1000 532 459 630 235 121 235 742 2 436 124 240 738 260
100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

Proportions/Means: Columns Tested (5% risk level) - A/B - C/D/E - F/G - H/I/J/K - L/M. *Small base, **Very small base (under 10) ineligible for sig testing

8. Why do you speak with the pharmacist on duty? Choose as many reasons as apply.
Total Gender Age Race1 Race2 Marital status
Male Female 18–34 35–59 60+ White Non White White Black Hisp Other Married Divorced Widow Never been married
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L) (M) (N) (O)
Base 587 277 310 165* 227 160 347 240 347 65* 99* 75* 299 67* 44* 173*
Prescription drug counseling 379 190 189 99 150 110 222 157 222 41 72 44 204 41 26 107
65% 69% 61% 60% 66% 69% 64% 66% 64% 63% 72% 58% 68% 62% 58% 62%
Over the counter drug counseling 60 27 33 12 21 22 38 22 38 4 8 10 28 7 5 20
10% 10% 10% 7% 9% 13% 11% 9% 11% 7% 8% 13% 9% 11% 12% 11%
Medical device counseling 21 8 13 7 5 6 13 7 13 3 0 5 10 3 4 3
4% 3% 4% 4% 2% 4% 4% 3% 4% 4% 0 6% 3% 5% 9%LO 2%
Injectable drug counseling 4 1 3 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 0 1 2 1 0 2
1% * 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 2% 0 1% 1% 1% 0 1%
Immunizations 2 1 1 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
* * * 0 * 0 * 0 * 0 0 0 0 1% 0 1%
Other 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
DK 205 81 124 78 87 29 109 96 109 23 38 35 102 23 8 70
35% 29% 40%A 47%E 39%E 18% 31% 40% 31% 36% 38% 47%H 34%N 35%N 18% 40%N
Refused 36 23 13 9 10 12 20 16 20 5 5 6 17 4 5 9
6% 8% 4% 6% 4% 8% 6% 7% 6% 8% 5% 8% 6% 5% 11% 5%
<<Sigma>> 706 331 375 206 276 180 405 301 405 78 122 101 363 80 47 212
120% 120% 121% 125% 122% 112% 117% 126% 117% 120% 123% 133% 121% 120% 108% 122%

Proportions/Means: Columns Tested (5% risk level) -A/B -C/D/E -F/G -H/I/J/K -L/M/N/O. *Small base

8. Why do you speak with the pharmacist on duty? Choose as many reasons as apply.
Total Education Employment Chronic illness or disease Health insurance Been to pharmacy
Some HS/High school/Some college Grad from 4 year/Grad school FT or PT Retired Working outside home Yes No No health ins. Self or spouse employer Direct from plan Public health ins. Yes No
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L) (M)
Base 587 289 293 388 127 64* 143 437 1** 287 71* 140 464 123*
Prescription drug counseling 379 189 188 255 79 42 89 285 1 194 52 92 306 73
65% 65% 64% 66% 62% 66% 63% 65% 100% 67% 74% 65% 66% 60%
Over the counter drug counseling 60 25 35 35 21 4 18 42 0 28 5 19 50 10
10% 9% 12% 9% 17%C 7% 13% 10% 0 10% 7% 14% 11% 8%
Medical device counseling 21 9 11 11 5 3 6 14 0 8 1 8 15 5
4% 3% 4% 3% 4% 5% 4% 3% 0 3% 1% 6% 3% 4%
Injectable drug counseling 4 2 2 2 2 1 1 4 0 0 1 2 4 0
1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0 0 2%I 2% 1% 0
Immunizations 2 2 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
* 1% 0 * 0 1% 1% * 0 0 0 0 * 1%
Other 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
DK 205 96 107 156 27 19 47 157 0 106 25 34 159 46
35% 33% 37% 40%D 21% 29% 33% 36% 0 37%K 36% 24% 34% 38%
Refused 36 21 14 18 11 5 5 28 0 12 4 13 27 8
6% 7% 5% 5% 9% 7% 3% 6% 0 4% 6% 9% 6% 7%
<<Sigma>> 706 344 358 478 145 75 167 530 1 348 88 169 563 144
120% 119% 122% 123% 114% 117% 117% 121% 100% 121% 125% 120% 121% 117%

Proportions/Means: Columns Tested (5% risk level) -A/B -C/D/E -F/G -H/I/J/K -L/M. *Small base, **Very small base (under 10) ineligible for sig testing

Table 2[suppl]:: Correlation between probiotic use and patient variables.
Probiotic Use Education Female Chronic Illness Health Insurance Age White
Pearson Correlation 0.019 0.155 0.13 0.024 0.188 0.202
Sig (2-Tailed) 0.542 0.000 0.000 0.441 0.000 0.000
N 992 1000 1000 1000 931 1000

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